Centos系列之一:Centos7安装VMwareTools

在WMware上的Centos7虚拟机要与主机共享文件夹需要安装VMwareTools(通过命令行模式)。

1. 加载VMwareTools的镜像

首先启动CentOS 7,在VMware中点击上方“VM”,点击“Install VMware Tools…”(如已安装则显示“Reinstall VMware Tools…”)

也可以直接使用虚拟机的光驱来手动加载VMware安装目录下的linux.iso镜像

2. 在系统中挂载cdrom

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# 创建一个用于挂载镜像的目录
mkdir /mnt/cdrom
# 使用mount命令来加载镜像到/mnt/cdrom目录下
mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom

使用ll命令来查看镜像的内容

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[[email protected] ~]# ll /mnt/cdrom/
total 56377
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 1975 Mar 17 2017 manifest.txt
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 2287 Mar 17 2017 run_upgrader.sh
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 56072885 Mar 17 2017 VMwareTools-10.1.6-5214329.tar.gz
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 802620 Mar 17 2017 vmware-tools-upgrader-32
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 848816 Mar 17 2017 vmware-tools-upgrader-64

3. 解压WMwareTools.tar.gz

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# 复制压缩包到home
cp /mnt/cdrom/VMwareTools-10.1.6-5214329.tar.gz ~
# 卸载镜像
umount /mnt/cdrom
# 解压VMwareTools到当前路径下
tar -zxcf ~/VMwareTools-10.1.6-5214329.tar.gz

解压完成后会在当前路径下生成一个vmware-tools-distrib的目录

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[[email protected] ~]# ll
total 2764868
-rw-------. 1 root root 1238 May 10 2017 anaconda-ks.cfg
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 141 Oct 12 2017 CI
drwxr-xr-x. 4 root root 45 Nov 30 13:30 docker
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 2457254895 May 3 16:32 harbor_db.tar.gz
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 317888971 Aug 29 2017 harbor-offline-installer-0.5.0.tgz
-r--r--r--. 1 root root 56072885 May 4 08:54 VMwareTools-10.1.6-5214329.tar.gz
drwxr-xr-x. 9 root root 145 Mar 17 2017 vmware-tools-distrib

4. 安装Cenos7编译环境

输入“cd vmware-tools-distrib/”进入名为“vmware-tools-distrib”的目录,输入“./vmware-install.pl”尝试安装,出现错误“-bash: ./vmware-install.pl: /usr/bin/per: bad interpreter: No such file or directory”,表明未安装编译环境。

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# 使用yum来安装编译环境
yum -y install perl gcc make kernel-headers kernel-devel

完成后使用yum命令来查看kernel(内核)的版本,需要保持一致

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[[email protected] ~]# yum list kernel*
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* base: mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn
* epel: mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn
* extras: mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn
* updates: mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn
Installed Packages
kernel.x86_64 3.10.0-514.el7 @anaconda
kernel.x86_64 3.10.0-514.16.1.el7 @updates
kernel.x86_64 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 @updates
kernel-devel.x86_64 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 @updates
kernel-headers.x86_64 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 @updates
kernel-tools.x86_64 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 @updates
kernel-tools-libs.x86_64 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 @updates
Available Packages
kernel-abi-whitelists.noarch 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 updates
kernel-debug.x86_64 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 updates
kernel-debug-devel.x86_64 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 updates
kernel-doc.noarch 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 updates
kernel-tools-libs-devel.x86_64 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7 updates

如果内核不一致需要将内核升级到和kernel-headers、kernel-devel一致的版本

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# 查看当前系统的内核
[[email protected] ~]# uname -a
Linux localhost 3.10.0-693.21.1.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed Mar 7 19:03:37 UTC 2018 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

5. 安装WMwareTools

进入vmware-tools-distrib目录

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[[email protected] ~]# cd vmware-tools-distrib/
[[email protected] vmware-tools-distrib]# ll
total 368
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 87 Mar 17 2017 bin
drwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 39 Mar 17 2017 caf
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 67 Mar 17 2017 doc
drwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 4096 Mar 17 2017 etc
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 149442 Mar 17 2017 FILES
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 2538 Mar 17 2017 INSTALL
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 137 Mar 17 2017 installer
drwxr-xr-x. 15 root root 202 Mar 17 2017 lib
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 21 Mar 17 2017 vgauth
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 216748 Mar 17 2017 vmware-install.pl

执行安装命令

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./vmware-install.pl

安装过程中的人机交互可以直接全部回车

6. 安装完成后的提示

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The configuration of VMware Tools 10.1.6 build-5214329 for Linux for this
running kernel completed successfully.

You must restart your X session before any mouse or graphics changes take
effect.

You can now run VMware Tools by invoking "/usr/bin/vmware-toolbox-cmd" from the
command line.

To enable advanced X features (e.g., guest resolution fit, drag and drop, and
file and text copy/paste), you will need to do one (or more) of the following:
1. Manually start /usr/bin/vmware-user
2. Log out and log back into your desktop session
3. Restart your X session.

Enjoy,

--the VMware team

7. 设置共享文件夹并挂载

在VMware软件的虚拟机设置来添加需要与虚拟机共享的主机文件夹。(VM -> Settings -> Options -> Shared folders)

在centos虚拟机上执行以下命令来挂载共享文件夹到/mnt/hgfs目录下

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# 使用mount命令进行挂载
[[email protected] ~]# mount -t vmhgfs .host:/ /mnt/hgfs
# data1即为共享文件夹
[[email protected] ~]# ll /mnt/hgfs/
total 0
drwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 0 Nov 26 21:57 data

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